method; skillful means; efficacious means; techniques


{C}expedient (means); expediency; skill in means


abhyupAya. upAya


{C,L,MSA,MV}*; {MSA}*; {MV}upAyatA


[1148] tshul dang/ cho ga'am lugs sam/ srol/ ... 'tsho thabs/ ... sgrub thabs/ ... las ka byed thabs/ ... gzhan du 'gro thabs med/ ... rtsis kyi snon 'phri sgyur bgod de thabs bzhi/ ... stag bzhon nas gzhol thabs med pa/ ... mi'i rgyu nor thabs kyis len pa/ ... mgron thabs su spyan drangs/ ... thabs la mkhas pa'i spyod pa la/ g.yo sgyur thub pas ma gsungs so/ ...


Comment: Gung-tang makes an important distinction between thabs (upAya) as compassion and thabs (upAya) as skillful means used to lead trainees by way of various techniques; he speaks from a tradition that distinguishes these two. It appears that in many Great Vehicle traditions, especially in East Asia, the two are conflated.


1. གྲུབ་ཐབས

2. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ

3. ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུཐོབ་པའི་བས 

4. གཞན་ཕན་གྱི་ཐབས


1. means of achievement (sAdhana); 

2. skill in means (upAyakauzalya); 

3. an efficacious means of attaining a Nature Truth Body; 

4. techniques of altruism


This has a special meaning in O.T., as a type of title/name. HP,PE 17, etc. Ruegg in JA (1981) 311, gives Sna-nam Zhang as an example (when it is used in front of the name Ye-shes-sde).


upaya, ethically-positive action, efficacy, way, beneficial expediency, method (the instructions of spiritual friends), opportunity, chance, possibility, manner, mode, means, measures, ritualistic observances, means, way, methods particle, skillful means, skillful means


1) way, [skillful] means, [liberative] technique, [expedient] method, skillful/ expedient device/ method(s; 

2) together, upaya. 1) method, way, skillful means, [liberative] technique, expedient method, skillful expedient device/ method(s); 

2) together, upaya [sgyu thabs, btsan thabs . tshul dang, cho ga'am lugs sam, srol,...'Tso thabs,...Sgrub thabs,...Las ka byed thabs,...Gzhan du 'gro thabs med,...Rtsis kyi snon 'phri sgyur bgod de thabs bzhi,...Stag bzhon nas gzhol thabs med pa,...Mi'i rgyu nor thabs kyis len pa,...Mgron thabs su spyan drangs]


(skillful/ expedient) means


1) method, way, skillful means, [liberative] technique, expedient method, skillful expedient device. 

2) together, དངཐབས་གཅིག together with. 

3) abrupt, abruptly བཙན་ཐབས

4) way,  མེད་ཐབས་མེད་པ no way without, indispensable. 

5) [about color]  ནགཐབསཐིབས

6) opportunity, {bya thabs rnyed} to find an opportunity for action. 

7) [upaya], expediency, ingenuity. means, skillfulness; way; Means, Skillful Means, method, Upaya. Methods. means, method [thd]