above; X and above




yan chod


{MSA}para; {MSA}pareNa


[2552] ya tshad dam yas mtshams 'dzin pa'i tshig ... bsam 'char 'dir yid mthun pa brgya cha dgu bcu yan chad zin 'dug ...


SW added Eng. "X and up" & ex. 2


yAvat. A-. Arabhya. Urdhvam


Also spelled *. When used in temporal rather than spacial contexts, this and its opposite, man chad, cause considerable confusion when faced with the task of translating them. Jaeschke seems to have a mistaken explanation for phrases including the syllables "nas [...] yan chad," that it means 'from [that time] forth' (i.e., toward the present). It would be more accurate to say, 'from the [time of] X upwards (backwards) in time to [the time of Y].' Likewise "nas man chad" means 'from that time forward.' There are examples in Mang-thos, Bstan-rtsis which show that Jaeschke and later lexicographers are mistaken in taking "lo brgyad yan chad" as meaning 'above eight years old' if 'above' is taken to mean of higher age; in fact, it means, in effect, 'up to his eighth year.' In lineage accounts contained in thob yig texts, it is quite clear that yan chad means the part of the lineage from that point 'upward' (meaning backward in time), while man chad means from that point 'downward' (forward in time). With numbers, of course, yan would mean going up to higher numbers (with age it seems also possible), but in historical time, yan always means backward, man means forward. Hahn, Grammar 170, charts out the various forms corresponding to the pattern: ya > yan > yar > yas. Identical patterns apply to the syllables pha, tshu, ma, phyi and sla. The forms of these syllables that end with 'n' may all have the ending chad added to them.


to, and on up, above, lead up to


above, in the upper part, up to and including, up to this point, at least, more than, over, after, onwards


above, in the upper part, up to and including, up to this point, up to and including; at least; more than, over/ everyone; onwards, above/ up to; up to; above