the four continents


* [of traditional Buddhist cosmology]




[424] ri rab kyi phyogs bzhi rgya mtshor chaD pa'i gling chen bzhi ste/  ཤར་ལུས་འཕགས་པོདངལྷོ་འཛམ་བུ་གླིངནུབ་བ་ལང་སྤྱོདbyang sgra mi snyan bcas so/ ...


Comment: In Buddhist cosmology there are eight smaller continents (gling phran brgyad) that, two each, are next to four large continents: In the center, is the monarch of mountains, ri rab (meru). The four continents and eight smaller continents are 

(1) ཤར་ལུས་འཕགས་པོ(videha), the eastern continent "land of [those with] superior/large bodies" with lus (deha) and ལུས་འཕགས (videha); 

(2) ལྷོ་འཛམ་བུ་གླིང (jambudvIpa), the southern continent "Jambu-tree land" with rnga yab (cAmara) and rnga yab gzhan (aparacAmara); 

(3) nub ba blang spyod (godanIya) the western continent "land of using cattle" with g.yo ldan (sAthA) and lam mchog 'gro (uttaramantriNa); 

(4) byang sgra mi snyan (kuru), the northern continent "land of unpleasant sound" with sgra mi snyan (kurava) and sgra mi snyan kyi zla (kaurava). Surrounding all of these is an outer rim of iron mountains.


shar lus 'phags gling / ལྷོ་འཛམ་བུ་གླིང / nub ba lang spyod / byang sgra mi snyan no. 600 35.


four continents (ལུས་འཕགས་པོ, འཛམ་བུ་གླིང, བ་ལང་སྤྱོད, སྒྲ་མི་སྙན)


* [around Moun Meru 

1) ཤར་ལུས་འཕགས་པོ 

2) ལྷོ་འཛམ་བུ་གླིང 

3) ནུབ་བ་ལང་སྤྱོད 

4) བྱང་སྒྲ་མི་སྙན 

Sublime in body ལུས་འཕགས. or Pu^rvavideha. in the east, Rose apple continent འཛམ་བུ་གླིང. or Jambudvi^pa. in the south, Enjoyer of cattle བ་གླང་སྤྱོད. or Aparagodani^ya. in the west, and Unpleasant sound {sgra mi snyan}. or Uttarakuru. in the north]


1) ཤར་ལུས་འཕགས་པོ. 

2) ལྷོ་འཛམ་བུ་གླིང 

3) ནུབ་བ་ལང་སྤྱོད

4) བྱང་སྒྲ་མི་སྙན 

Four Continents. Sublime in Body {lus 'phags} or Purvavideha. in the east, Rose Apple Continent འཛམ་བུ་གླིང or Jambudvipa. in the south, Enjoyer of Cattle {ba glang spyod} or Aparagodaniya. in the west, and Unpleasant Sound {sgra mi snyan} or Uttarakuru. in the north. Four continents. The four continents surrounding Mount Sumeru: Superior Body, Jambu Continent, Cow Utilizing, and Unpleasant Sound. *: ལུས་འཕགས Majestic Body, འཛམ་བུ་གླིང Jambu Continent, {ba lang spyod} Bountiful Cow, {sgra mi snyan} Unpleasant Sound